Primary access to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) alert stream is planned to be via endpoints accessed through “community brokers”. Community brokers are likely to provide additional services, e.g. enriching alerts with additional data from other catalogs or providing event classification, and to allow end-users to filter these enriched alerts. Supplementary to these community brokers, the LSST will provide a basic alert filtering service with limited capacity. The service will only allow access to the contents of each alert, i.e., no outside information can be used in a filter.
The Data Products Definition Document (DPDD, LSE-163) describes how end-users
will build filters.
End-users will be able to write filters using simple code (likely written
as Python functions) or SQL-like queries.
The Data Management Systems Requirements document (DMSR, LSE-61) gives the
requirements for the alert filtering service, namely DMS-REQ-0342
(existence of filtering service), DMS-REQ-0348 (pre-defined filters),
and DMS-REQ-0343 (performance requirements).
The filtering service is expected to support
numBrokerUsers = 100
simultaneous connected users each allocated a bandwidth capable of
numBrokerAlerts = 20 full alerts per visit.
2 Pipeline outline¶
The prototype mini-broker described here includes the following components, investigated and benchmarked in DMTN-028 [DMTN-028]:
- Mock alerts following the schema outlined in the DPDD, in Avro format
- A mock alert producer generating and sending alerts at expected LSST scale
- Instances of Kafka and Zookeeper, the proposed alert stream distribution platform
- Filters consisting of simple Python code
- Mock end-users reading filtered streams
The instructions below deploy an alert producer generating 10,000 alerts per visit at a regular interval of one visit every 39 seconds. The alerts are sent to a Kafka stream, where they are consumed by groups of alert filters. We use here 100 filters, split into five Kafka stream consumers each having 20 filters. The filters make simple magnitude cuts on the alerts, and each filter allows a maximum of 20 alerts per visit to pass the filter. Alerts that pass a filter are sent to a stream specific to that filter. Science users can then subscribe to a specified filtered stream.
All components of the mini-broker prototype can be deployed in Docker containers. Below provides instructions for use with Docker Swarm, which deploys containers over a group of multiple machines joined in a cluster. Containers have been tested, on a single machine, on an AWS cluster of machines running a Swarm, and on Kubernetes. For Kubernetes scripts and instructions specifically for deployment on the NCSA infrastructure, see the kubernetes directory in the alert_stream repo as of the merge of branch tickets/DM-14838. These scripts will need to be modified when running on other infrastructure.
The Docker Swarm used for development was built via a Docker for AWS cloud, consisting of ten m4.4xlarge machines (16 vCPUs, 64 GiB memory, and 2000 Mbps EBS bandwidth). Filters on machines with fewer than 16 CPUs were observed to be unable to process a visit’s worth of alerts before the next visit was started. We tested up to 20 end-user filtered stream consumers and observed no performance issues. A larger cluster may be necessary for running at full scale with 100 end-user consumers.
Services should be started in the following order: Kafka and Zookeeper, end-user consumers listening to filtered streams, filters, and then alert producers.
All the relevant code for the mini-broker prototype is available in two GitHub repos: https://github.com/lsst-dm/alert_stream and https://github.com/lsst-dm/sample-avro-alert.
To build the images for the containers for the alert stream producers,
filters, and consumers, checkout the
docker build -t "alert_stream" .
This prototype uses Confluent’s distribution of Kafka, specifically
Confluent 4.1.1 and Kafka 1.1.0.
Kafka and Zookeeper can be run in containers.
To start Kafka and Zookeeper on a single node using
Docker Compose (i.e., not Swarm mode),
alert_stream directory run:
docker-compose up -d
In a larger scale Swarm, initiate the Swarm across all machines and run the commands below to start the services. It is good to keep Kafka and Zookeeper separate from other containers by constraining Kafka and Zookeeper to the manager node(s) and constraining the other services to worker nodes.
docker network create --driver overlay alert_stream_default docker service create \ --name kafka \ --network alert_stream_default \ --constraint node.role==manager \ -p 9092 \ -e KAFKA_BROKER_ID=1 \ -e KAFKA_ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT=zookeeper:32181 \ -e KAFKA_ADVERTISED_LISTENERS=PLAINTEXT://kafka:9092 \ -e KAFKA_OFFSETS_TOPIC_REPLICATION_FACTOR=1 \ # remove if starting 3 brokers or more -e KAFKA_HEAP_OPTS="-Xmx8g -Xms8g" \ -e KAFKA_JVM_PERFORMANCE_OPTS="-XX:MetaspaceSize=96m -XX:+UseG1GC -XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=20 -XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent=35 -XX:G1HeapRegionSize=16M -XX:MinMetaspaceFreeRatio=50 -XX:MaxMetaspaceFreeRatio=80" \ confluentinc/cp-kafka:4.1.1 docker service create \ --name zookeeper \ --network alert_stream_default \ --constraint node.role==manager \ -p 32181 \ -e ZOOKEEPER_CLIENT_PORT=32181 \ -e ZOOKEEPER_TICK_TIME=2000 \ confluentinc/cp-zookeeper:4.1.1
Kafka and Zookeeper should be listed when running
docker service ls
3.2 End consumers¶
Sample consumers can be started by running either
which prints alert contents to the screen,
monitorStream.py, which prints the status of the latest offset
(number of alerts received).
Both of these scripts are found in the
alert_stream GitHub rep.
To run the mini-broker prototype at full scale with 100 end-users,
100 containers would need to be deployed, each consuming a topic
following the naming scheme
To deploy, e.g., the monitoring script using Docker on a single node, consuming the stream for the 10th filter, run:
docker run -it --rm \ --name=monitor010 \ --network=alert_stream_default \ alert_stream python bin/monitorStream.py kafka:9092 Filter010
Output is directed to the screen.
To deploy the same process as a Swarm service, instead run:
docker service create \ --name monitor010 \ --network alert_stream_default \ --constraint node.role==worker \ -e PYTHONUNBUFFERED=0 \ alert_stream python bin/monitorStream.py kafka:9092 Filter010
Each individual filter is written as a class containing a function
that operates on the contents on an alert and returns true or false.
Filters are added by adding additional classes to
The filtering code limits the number of passing alerts to 20
alerts per visit.
In this prototype, each filter class name should include the
3 digit filter number, following the format of
etc., as the filter class name is the name of the filtered
stream from which the end-consumers read.
The filtering code takes as input a range of numbers of filters to run at once, which consume a single instance of the unfiltered stream in parallel. For example, running
python bin/filterStream.py kafka:9092 my-stream 1 10
will deploy filters 1 through 10 in a group. Each group needs to read its own instance of the full stream. To avoid performance issues which will result in lagging filters, the number of groups (i.e., the number of instances of the full stream flowing in this system) should be kept to a minimum. See DMTN-028 [DMTN-028]. In this prototype, we recommend here to run five filter groups, each acting on a group of 20 filters (i.e., 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, 81-100). Each group of filters can be deployed in its own Docker container.
To deploy, e.g., the first group of filters on an
unfiltered stream called
full-stream on a single node,
run the following:
docker run -it --rm \ --network=alert_stream_default \ alert_stream python bin/filterStream.py kafka:9092 full-stream 1 20
Alternatively, as a service in a Docker Swarm, run:
docker service create \ --name filtergroup1 \ --network alert_stream_default \ --constraint node.role==worker \ -e PYTHONUNBUFFERED=0 \ alert_stream python bin/filterStream.py kafka:9092 full-stream 1 20
This constrains filter groups to worker nodes, separate from
Kafka and Zookeeper.
You can also ensure that each filter group is deployed on its
own node by taking advantage of constraint
The alerts used here have realistic content generated by the Sims/Commissioning team, but lack object histories and stamps. (TODO: Add stamps.) Alerts are in Avro format with a schema following the schema detailed in the DPDD. The schema and sample data can be found in the repo https://github.com/lsst-dm/sample-avro-alert.
Included in the Docker image are a small number of Avro files for testing. Each file contains one visit of alerts. The alerts were generated without a signal-to-noise cut, and therefore each file contains more alerts than expected per visit. (TODO: Cut on signal-to-noise.) However, the alert producer code limits the number of alerts sent to Kafka to 10,000 per visit.
3.5 Alert producers¶
sendAlertStream.py script reads Avro files
data directory and
produces alerts to Kafka, one visit every 39 seconds.
The code can use the sample files included in the
image or files mounted as a volume into a Docker
container to the internal
In this prototype only one alert producer is used.
Multiple producers could also be used by scaling up
the number of Docker containers and modifying the code
to produce the number of alerts which will yield
a total of 10,000 across all producers.
To run one alert producer on a single node, mounting a local directory of Avro files inside the container, run:
docker run -it --rm \ --name=sender \ -v $PWD:/home/alert_stream/data:ro \ --network=alert_stream_default \ alert_stream python bin/sendAlertStream.py kafka:9092 full-stream
To alternatively deploy the alert producer as a Swarm service, run the following:
docker service create \ --name sender \ --network alert_stream_default \ -v $PWD:/home/alert_stream/data:ro \ -e PYTHONUNBUFFERED=0 \ alert_stream python bin/sendAlertStream.py kafka:9092 full-stream
The local Avro files must be on the same node or otherwise accessible to the alert producer container.
4 Evaluating results¶
At the end of a successful run of the alert distribution and mini-broker pipeline, end-user consumer containers should be able to receive 20 filtered alerts from each visit, and, at minimum, all components should process each visit’s alerts in enough time such that end-consumers do not receive a filtered stream that lags behind the sequence of observations. For details about the timing and performance of the component of the pipeline from alert serialization to submission to the distribution stage, see DMTN-028 [DMTN-028].
The alert producer writes to stdout the time at which the first serialized alert is read from an Avro file and the time at which the last alert has been submitted for distribution. End-consumer containers should receive and process 20 alerts per visit before the next visit has started. Two consumer types are provided here. One consumer prints alerts to stdout and prints a status message that is only produced when reaching the end of a stream after processing all messages available at that time. The monitor consumer drops alert contents, instead printing only end-of-stream status messages. The status messages contain the time at which the last available message has been processed and the running total (offset) of the number of alerts processed. An example end-of-stream message is provided below:
topic:full-stream, partition:0, status:end, offset:1000, key:None, time:1528496269.734
If status messages are produced, the end-user consumer containers have been able to process messages faster than they are submitted for distribution. The difference between the time logged by the status messages and the time logged by the alert producer gives the end-to-end alert submission to end-user consumer receipt time.